Sunday, February 20, 2011


The Hope was a united states brig class merchant send involved in the Marine Fur Trade along the northwest coast of America and discovery in this Pacific Ocean. Earlier the vessel was involved inside slave trade.

Early trips

Sailing out of Newport, Rhode Island anticipation was involved in taking Africans to the U . s . to be sold seeing that slaves as part of the Middle Passage. In 1765, the brig ended up being under the command connected with Captain Nathaniel Mumford. Upon March 17, 1765 any revolt occurred on the actual ship:

"There was the passenger revolt aboard this brigantine Hope while it had been bringing slaves from the particular coast of Senegal and also Gambia to Connecticut. Just how did that happen? Very well, the captain, who received beaten several of his / her crewmen, had been mortally wounded and his body thrown overboard, and so the actual black cargo, seeing such discord among their captors, figured they maybe had a chance. Within their revolt they killed just one crew member and harmed several others. On this day their revolt was suppressed by killing seven of them."

The following year the particular vessel brought in hundred slaves to Rhode Island.

Revolutionary War

During Americas War for Freedom, the ship was used by several purposes. In 1780 a ship known as Hope was used as being a hospital prison ship with the British. It was furthermore used to ship English Loyalists to New Brunswick.

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Pacific voyages

Your brig Hope left Boston ma on September 16, 1790, to the Northwest Coast under the actual command of Joseph Ingraham, former first spouse onboard the Columbia Rediviva under the control of Captain Robert Gray. Sailed around Cape Automobile horn, passing by the the southern area of tip of South The usa on January 26, 1791. Desperation next touched land on April 14 when the lady put in at Vent Madre de Dios around the island of Dominica, part of the Marquesas Islands chain. Right now there the ship took in limited provisions before establishing sail once again. After that on April 19, many people discovered a small unmapped island group. The 5 islands were situated concerning 9 degrees south on the equator, and Ingraham referred to as them the Washington Countries. This group is perhaps the Marquesas Islands of your Pacific Ocean. Ingraham named many of the hawaiian islands: Washington for the president, Adams for the v . p ., Federal, Franklin, Knox, and lastly Lincoln for a common. The islands are approximately at 9 20' southerly of the Equator along with 140 54' west of London. After leaving the Marquesas the Hope sailed north to your Sandwich Islands and subsequently onto the Queen Charlotte Islands of the North-west Coast. The ship and also crew spent the summer trading for fur pelts from the residents along the coast. On September 26, 1792, anticipation was in Neah Bay on the Olympic Peninsula with the Spanish language vessels Princesa and Activa under the get of Spanish Commodore Juan Francisco de are generally Bodega y Quadra. This day Captain Gray arrived on-board the Columbia along with all the smaller Adventure that was then sold to Quadra. Just after the crew sailed for China via the Meal Islands, and then to Boston. On the voyage to the Chinese landmass the ship log demonstrates the Hope passing through Formosa. The next calendar year the Hope repeated your journey. These voyages ended up a commercial failure.

Afterwards voyages

In August regarding 1795, merchant John Dark brown of Providence, Rhode Tropical isle conspired to trade with slaves with Captain Peleg Wood. The Desire was the ship to get used, however the United Declares had recently limited engagement in the international slave traffic by Congressional action with 1794. By November anticipation was engaged in your slave trade again. Subsequent in March of 1796, owners of the ship have been fined by Rhode Island the amount of L200 for trading in slaves, which had also been outlawed in that state. Then on October 5, 1797, Brown became the initial American tried in government court under the Slave Trade Act of 1794 for utilizing the Hope in the particular African slave trade. On it voyage in 1796 the Hope had traveled to Havana, Cuba with 229 slaves.

After the actual forced sale, during your Quasi-War with Italy the Hope was seized by French privateers.[nine] At this time the particular vessel was under the particular command of John Rodgers who had functioned on board the USS Constellation, and owned or operated by Baltimore, Maryland merchant James Buchanan.[9] After capture the Hope, which in fact had been transporting tobacco, had been sold off at Lorient in February connected with 1797

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Marquesas Keys

The Marquesas Keys (certainly not to be confused using the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) inside Pacific Ocean) form an uninhabited island group in relation to 30 miles (50 km) west of Key West, 4 miles (6 km) in diameter, in addition to inhabited by mangrove. They may be an unincorporated area involving Monroe County, Florida in addition to belong to the Lower Keys Census County Division. They are protected included in the Key West National Fauna Refuge. The Marquesas were utilized for target practice through the military as recently seeing that 1980.

The entire area, including the lagune, measures 29.37 km2. The land region, according to the United States Census Bureau, is six.58 km2 (exactly half-dozen,579,703 m2), water area 0.17 km2 (165,744 m2), that has a combined area 6,80 km2 (6,745,447 m2), whereby water areas with connection to the open sea are certainly not counted, but only little landlocked lakes on the particular Keys. The group is situated at coordinates 2434'19N 8207'10W? / ?24.57194N eighty two.11944W? / 24.57194; -eighty-two.11944Coordinates: 2434'19N 8207'10W? / ?twenty four.57194N 82.11944W? / per day.57194; -82.11944.

The islands are part of the particular Florida Keys, separated in the rest of the Florida Keys, which are further east, by the Boca Grande Channel, that is 6 miles (10 km) wide until Boca Grande Key, your westernmost of the Scuff Keys. Only the Dried Tortugas are farther gulf, 36 miles (60 km) west of your Marquesas Keys.

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The key lagoon is called Mooney Harbor. The northern most key is the greatest and has a reel of sandy beach freed from mangrove. In the previous it was known because "Entrance Key". It surrounds the lagoon in its northern border and east. Adjoining in the south are smaller keys including Gull Keys, Mooney Have Key, and finally about four unnamed keys in your southwest corner of this tropical isle. Older charts show that two of these tips once were named "Key Island" and "Round Is".

Six miles (10 km) west of the Marquesas Keys is Rebecca Shoal.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

Henrietta Marie

The Henrietta Marie would be a slave ship that taken captive Africans to this West Indies, where we were looking at sold as slaves. This ship wrecked at your southern tip of California on its way the place to find England, and is among only a few wrecks of slave ships that were identified.


The Henrietta Marie was 60 to 80 feet (18 to all day and meters) in length having a cargo capacity of 130 tons (108 metric tons) and carried a producers of about eighteen males. It was probably inbuilt France sometime in the 17th century. The vessel came into English person late in the 17th century, possibly as a war prize during the particular War of the Awesome Alliance. It was utilized in the Atlantic slave traffic, making at least a pair of voyages carrying Africans to be able to slavery in the West Indies. On its initial voyage, in 1697-1698, the ship maintained more than 200 people from Africa that ended up sold as slaves inside Barbados.

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In 1699 this Henrietta Marie sailed through England on the 1st leg of the pie trade route with a load of trade goods, which includes iron and copper cafes, pewter utensils, glass drops, cloth and brandy. Your ship sailed under permit from the Royal Cameras Company (which held some sort of monopoly on English do business with Africa), in exchange regarding ten percent of the benefits of the voyage. It really is known to have traded in for African captives at New Calabar on this Guinea Coast. The dispatch then sailed on the next leg of its expedition, from Africa to the particular West Indies, and in May 1700 landed 191 Africans for sale made in Port Royal, Jamaica. The Henrietta Jessica then loaded a products of sugar, cotton, dyewoods and ginger to look at back to England on the third leg of the actual triangular route. After departing Port Royal the dispatch headed for the Yucatn Channel to pass on the western end regarding Cuba (thus avoiding the pirates infesting the verse between Cuba and Hispaniola) and catch your Gulf Stream, the favored route for all vessels leaving the Caribbean to return to Europe. The Henrietta Marie wrecked on New Terrain Reef near the Marquesas Keys, approximately thirty-five miles west of Key West. There were not any survivors, and the luck of the ship remained unknown for almost four centuries.


The accident was found in 1974 during a magnetometer questionnaire by a boat controlled by a subsidiary of Mel Fisher's Treasure Salvors, Inc. (Fisher's organization was searching for this Nuestra Senora de Atocha and other treasure ships of the 1733 Spanish treasure swift that had wrecked over the Florida Keys in some sort of hurricane.) Two anchors along with a cannon were found within the first visit. The accident was visited again within 1973. Some artifacts have been collected from the wreck, including bilboes, iron shackles that were used to restrain slaves. When they will realized that the break was likely a striver ship, not a cherish ship, the company reburied the artifacts bobs of the ship's hull that they acquired exposed and left the website. In 1983 through 85 Henry Taylor, sub-contracting with Mel Fisher's company, excavated the wreck (known as your English wreck) with the assistance of archaeologist David Moore. The actual wreck was identified whenever a bronze ship's bell holding the inscription The Henrietta Marie 1699 was discovered at the wreck web site. Survey and excavation of the wreck site has continuing at intervals.

The Henrietta Marie wreck features yielded more than seven thousand objects (and more as compared to 30,000 glass drops), the largest collection regarding artifacts known from some sort of slave ship. They include contributed greatly to our understanding of slave cruises and the slave buy and sell. Parts making up a lot more than 80 bilboes have been recently found at the damage site. As bilboes were being typically used to shackle pairs of slaves jointly, the ones found on the wreck site could possess restrained more than clx slaves. Other items available at the wreck site incorporate trade goods apparently left from trading for captives in Africa, items acquired in Africa along with captives (including an elephant tusk), and gear of the ship and crew. Section of the hull of the deliver, including much of the actual keel and part of the stern post, have made it, and have been assessed and reburied at the web page.

Two copper cauldrons located at the wreck site streamline the diet of the actual crew and slaves with a voyage. Malcom argues that the cauldrons were used to organize separate meals for your crew and the slaves. One cauldron stood a single chamber one-half cubic yard throughout capacity. This vessel was probably used to make a sort of mush or perhaps gruel for the slaves. As there have been no slaves on the actual ship at the time that it wrecked, the cauldron have been used to store sequence. The second cauldron was smaller and had a couple of chambers. One chamber has a capacity of one cu ft, and the second some sort of capacity of one-half cubic foot. This specific vessel could have already been used to cook the two-course meal for the crew.


In Might 1993, the National Association of Black Scuba All scuba divers placed a memorial oral plaque on the site from the Henrietta Marie. The oral plaque buildup faces the African the shoreline thousands of miles out, and has the identify of the slave ship and reads, In ram and recognition of the courage, pain and enduring of enslaved African persons. Speak her name and gently touch the people of our ancestors." Medical professional. Colin Palmer stated, "situation ends in 1700 due to this particular ship, but the storyplot of what the vessel represented continues today," he tells. "The importance of the actual Henrietta Marie is that she is an vital part of recovering this black experience - symbolically, metaphorically and in simple fact".

A 1995 documentary, Hard worker Ship: The Testimony on the Henrietta Marie, was narrated by Cornell West.

The vessel was also included on the History Channel's Deep Sea Detectives.

An exhibition, "A Break one's back Ship Speaks: the Wreck of the Henrietta Jessica", was created by the Mel Fisher Maritime Historical past Society in 1995, along with toured museums around america for more than 10 years.

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Thursday, February 10, 2011

Atlantic triangular slave trade

Triangular trade, or triangle trade, is a traditional term indicating trade amongst three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually changes when a region provides export commodities that will not be required in the place from which its key imports come. Triangular trade thus provides a means for rectifying trade imbalances between above regions.

Atlantic triangular slave trade

The best-known triangular stock trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to beginning 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and also manufactured goods between Western world Africa, Caribbean or U . s . colonies and the Western european colonial powers, with this northern colonies of United kingdom North America, especially Fresh England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe.

The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing colonial funds crops, which were exported to Europe. European goods, in turn, were accustomed to purchase African slaves, which are then brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas, your so called middle passage.

A classic example will be the trade of sugar (often in its liquid form, molasses) from the Caribbean to Europe or Brand new England, where it ended up being distilled into rum. The profits from the sale involving sugar were used to acquire manufactured goods, which ended up then shipped to Western Africa, where they have been bartered for slaves. The particular slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean being sold to sugar plant containers. The profits from the particular sale of the slaves were then employed to buy more sugar, that has been shipped to Europe, etc.

The first leg in the triangle was from a new European port to Africa, in which ships transported supplies for sale as well as trade, such as birdwatcher, cloth, trinkets, slave beans, guns and ammunition. Once the ship arrived, its packages would be sold or bartered for slaves. Around the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage from Africa towards the New World. Many slaves died of sickness in the crowded supports of the slave boats. Once the ship gotten to the New World, enslaved survivors were sold in the Caribbean or the National colonies. The ships were then prepared to encourage them thoroughly cleaned, drained, and also loaded with export merchandise for a return expedition, the third leg, on their home port. From the West Indies the major export cargoes were sweets, rum, and molasses; by Virginia, tobacco and halter. The ship then delivered to Europe to comprehensive the triangle.

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However, as a result of several disadvantages that striver ships faced compared to trade ships, they typically returned to their household port carrying whatever merchandise were readily available in the Americas and filled in place a large part or maybe all of their ability with ballast. Other disadvantages include the different form of the ships (to carry as many humans as you possibly can, but not ideal to carry a maximum amount involving produce) and the variants in the duration of an slave voyage, making that practically impossible to pre-schedule appointments inside the Americas, which meant which slave ships often arrived at the Americas out-involving-season. Instead, the income crops were transported largely by a separate fleet which in turn only sailed from The european union to the Americas and also back. The Triangular business is a trade model, not an exact explanation of the ship's option.

New England

New The united kingdom also benefited from the particular trade, as many suppliers were from New Britain, especially Rhode Island, swapping the role of European countries in the triangle. New England also made funny from the Caribbean mister and molasses, which the item shipped to Africa as well as within the New Planet.[6] Yet, the "triangular trade" as considered regarding New England was any piecemeal operation. No Brand-new England traders are recognized by have completed a sequential circuit of the complete triangle, which took a calendar year on typical,according to historian Clifford Shipton.[7] The technique of the New England Triangular in shape trade was first proposed, inconclusively, in an 1866 book by George H. Moore, ended up being picked up in 1872 by historian George C. Mason, as well as reached full consideration from your lecture in 1887 by American businessman and historian William B. Weeden.

Your song "Molasses to Curious" from the musical 1776 vividly describes this manner of the triangular trade.

Other triangular trades

The particular term "triangular trade" additionally refers to a various other trades.

* A industry pattern which evolved prior to American Revolutionary War involving Great Britain, the colonies of British North The us, and British colonies from the Caribbean. This typically required exporting raw resources for instance fish (especially salt codfish) or agricultural produce through British North American colonies to feed slaves along with planters in the West Indies (also lumber); mister and molasses from the islands; and various manufactured everything from Great Britain.
* The shipment connected with Newfoundland salt cod and corn from Boston, Boston in British vessels for you to southern Europe.[10] This included the shipment of wine and olive acrylic to Britain.
* The "glucose triangle" whereby American vessels took local produce to Cuba, then brought sugars or coffee from Cuba to Saint Petersburg, then bar metal and hemp back to be able to New England.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011


Fredensborg was a frigate built in Copenhagen in 1752 or even 1753. She was called Cron Prindz Christian following prince who was to be king Christian VII associated with Denmark and Norway, in addition to was fitted out as being a slave ship. After a unsuccessful stint in this triangular trade, her in business area was limited for the Caribbean, where she sailed as a broker until 1756. The dispatch was then purchased by simply another Danish company and renamed Fredensborg after one of the Danish-Norwegian trading stations on the African Gold Coast. On 1 12 , 1768 Fredensborg sank in a very storm off Tromoy throughout Arendal, Norway.

The destroy was discovered by divers in September 1974. One was Leif Svalesen who later has worked to be able to document the ship.

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Friday, February 4, 2011

Creole case

The Creole case emereged as the result of a slave insurrection in 1841 on aboard the Creole, a dispatch involved in the Us coastwise slave trade.

Inside 1841, a brig branded Creole was transporting 120 slaves between Hampton Highways, Virginia and New Orleans.

On Nov. 6, 1841, led by Madison Washington, nineteen slaves on board the Creole revolted, and guided the ship to be taken to Nassau on the is of New Providence within the Bahamas, then a English colony. During the break one's back revolt a white slave trader, John Hewell, was killed, and a slave past away later of heavy injuries (Schoenherr).

On Nov. 9, 1841 the Creole appeared to Nassau in the Bahamas, where its mutineers were surrounded as well as assisted by fellow blues in small boats.

In the request of the National consul, the governor in the island ordered a protect on board to steer clear of the escape of the mutineers. After an study, 19 of the slaves were imprisoned. The remainder 116 slaves were stated free by the English government.

The arrest in the conspirators may have completely placated the American open and government, as it dropped its claims. As the British sympathized with the particular rebellious slaves, the remaining 17 were freed about Nov. 16, 1841, two of the slaves past away during their few times in captivity. The Creole sailed on to New Orleans, arriving in Dec. 2, 1841, along with five slaves still on top.

The Creole case created diplomatic tension between The uk and the United Declares, and political rumblings inside United States itself.

Secretary of State Daniel Webster stated the slaves were legal components and demanded their go back. By this time, Great Britain had ended slavery in its nation and its colonies, so the British ignored the U.S. assert.

Abolitionist Charles Sumner contended that the slaves "evolved into free men when consumed, by the voluntary motion of their owners, over and above the jurisdiction of the actual slave states." Representative Joshua Reed Giddings regarding Ohio introduced a series of nine resolutions in north america House of Representatives that argued that Virginia state regulations did not apply in order to slaves outside of Virginian waters, and how the U.S. federal authorities should not act to shield the rights of the actual slaveholders in this case. The resolutions provoked solid emotions. The House censured Giddings, who immediately resigned. The voters regarding Ohio reelected him before long afterwards.

The Creole insurrection ignited the attack about slavery by northern abolitionists in 1842 (Schoenherr). Within a New York Evangelist newspaper story, “The Hero Mutineers,” Madison Washington has been named the ‘romantic idol.’ This is so mainly because Madison showed his empathy towards the white folks members on the Creole. He stopped his or her fellow slave mates from murdering them, and also dressed the sailors’ pains after the revolt (Schoenherr).

Though either the United States or the British might have raised the issue during the discussions that produced the Webster-Ashburton Treaty involving 1842, neither nation do.[citation needed] Among various other declarations, the Webster-Ashburton Treaty called for just a final end to the particular slave trade on the actual high seas, to possibly be enforced by both signatories.

After 15 many years of negotiation and arbitration, the British government agreed to pay $110,000 to the owners of the ship's "cargo."

A similar slave rebellion and takeover of any ship took place for the high seas in 1839 on board your Amistad.

Wednesday, February 2, 2011


The schooner Clotilde (as well as Clotilda) was the very last known U.S. slave ship to bring slaves from Africa to the United States, arriving with Mobile Bay in fall 1859 (some sources provide July 9, 1860), with 110-160 slaves. The ship was a a pair of-masted schooner, 86 feet long by 23 toes (26x7 m), and rrt had been burned and scuttled at Mobile Bay, soon after. The sponsors had established to buy slaves within Whydah, Dahomey on May well 15, 1859.

Many descendants of Cudjo Kazoola Lewis, the final survivor of the Clotilde, still reside within Africatown, a neighborhood regarding Mobile, Alabama. A memorial bust of him had been placed in front in the Union Missionary Baptist Religious organization there.

In autumn connected with 1859, the schooner Clotilde (or Clotilda), underneath the command of Captain William Foster, arrived in Cellular Bay carrying a freight of enslaved Africans, numbering between 110 and clx people.[1] Captain Foster was working for Phleum pratense Meaher, a wealthy Cellular shipyard owner and shipper, who had built the Clotilde in 1856.[1] Local traditional knowledge relates that Meaher guess some "Northern gentlemen" that they could get around your 1807 law, which not allowed the importation of slaves, without getting caught.[1] The Clotilde was obviously a two-masted schooner, ninety ft (26 m) very long and 23 ft (7 m) wide, using a copper-sheated hull.[1] Meaher had learned that West African tribes have been fighting, and that the particular King of Dahomey seemed to be willing to trade Africans for US$50 each in the Kingdom of Whydah, Dahomey.[1] Foster arrived inside Whydah on May 12-15, 1859, bought Africans from several different tribes, and going back to Mobile.[1]

When the Clotilde arrived, Federal specialists had been alerted towards illegal scheme. Fearful associated with criminal charges, Captain Instill arrived in the slot at night and transported his cargo to a riverboat, then burned this Clotilde before sinking this.[1] The African slaves were distributed to the people having a financial desire for the Clotilde venture, having Timothy Meaher retaining 30 of the Africans in his property near Portable.[1]

Cudjo (aka Cudjoe) Lewis was on the list of 30 held by Meaher.[1] Mobile is at the Deep South as well as blacks, whether Africans or perhaps native-born people, had been mostly enslaved, occupying underneath rung of a racial hierarchy.[1] The particular Africans brought on your Clotilde could not always be legally enslaved; however, these were treated as chattel. Your American Civil War was over six years after your illegal enslavement of the actual Africans brought aboard the actual Clotilde.[1]

When opened, the Africans settled at Magazine Point, just to the north of Mobile, calling his or her community Africatown.[1] That they adopted their own guidelines and leaders, and they will established the African Religious organization. The group worked hard: the women used their agricultural ability to raise and advertise crops, and the men worked in mills with regard to $1 a day, saving cash to purchase the property. When possible, they definitely avoided the whites.[1]

Cudjo Lewis (African label, Kazoola)[1][2] ended up being the last survivor in the Clotilde journey. In 1927, Zora Neale Hurston, the African-United states writer, interviewed Lewis with the Journal of Negro History and made a short movie of him.[1] Through interviews, Lewis would explain to about the civil wars in West Africa, in which members of the sacrificing side were sold directly into slavery to Africans along with Europeans.[1] His collection were Tarkars of Western Africa.[1] Cudjo connected how he had also been captured by warriors via neighboring Dahomey, taken straight into Whydah, and imprisoned with a slave compound. He was sold by the King of Dahomey to Bill Foster and then transported to the U.Azines.[1] After the Us Civil War, the Tarkar people asked the government to be repatriated, nevertheless they were denied.

They after that tried to recreate the homeland in Mobile. The particular group continued speaking their own native language and applied African gardening or preparing techniques, trying to keep their West African culture.[1] For several years, Cudjo Lewis served being a spokesman for the Tarkar people of Africatown.[1] He has been visited by many dominant blacks, among them Booker T. Washington. Cudjo Lewis eventually came to imagine that Africans had to look at the new country, even though their white countrymen got treated them brutally.[1] Cudjo Lewis passed away in 1935 at age 94.[1]

In Africatown, the Union Baptist Church has this Cudjo Lewis Memorial Figurine. In 1997 descendants along with friends mounted a marketing campaign to have the local community designated a historical internet site.[1]

Because Captain Instill burned and sank the particular ship[2] upon birth in Mobile Bay, archaeological searches continue for the actual wreck of the Clotilde in the these types of.[1]