Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Slave Songs

Songs of Freedom
The seemingly innocent spirituals, as the slave songs came to be known, were more than simple hymns of endurance and a belief in a better afterlife. ...
The Ballad of the Underground ... - Follow the Drinking Gourd - Wade In the Water

Coded Slave Songs
“Wade in the Water”, one of the most common slave songs and still a gospel standard, provided literal escape instructions' ...

Song Official Site of Negro Spirituals, antique Gospel Music
They were called “spiritual songs” and the term “sperichil” (spiritual) appeared for the first time in the book “Slave Songs of The United States”

Songs of Freedom
Jump to Spirituals and Anti-Slavery Songs‎: The more explicit anti-slavery verses in some of these songs, though, may be additions from the Civil War ...

Slave Work Songs : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site
Slave work gangs used these kinds of call-and-response work songs to regulate the pace of their work. These songs also became an opportunity ...

Work song
African American work songs originally developed in the era of slavery, ... The first collection of African American 'slave songs' was published in 1867 by ...

Amazon.com: Stellar Funk: Best of: Slave: Music
This is an excellent best of Slave as well as featuring some of Steve Arrington's solo songs. If you are a Slave fan, you will appreciate this purchase. ...
www.amazon.com › Music › Dance & Electronic › Disco

Slavery and the Making of America . The Slave Experience ...
Today, slave music is usually grouped in three major categories: Religious, Work, and "Recreational" songs. Each type adapted elements of African and ...

Books for slave songs
Slave Songs of the United States - William Francis Allen, Charles Pickard Ware, ... - 1867 - 176 pages
Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands - Lydia Parrish, Art Rosenbaum, Olin Downes, ... - 1992 - 330 pages

Thursday, April 14, 2011

The Middle Passage

By 1654, some 8-10,000-10,000 Africans each year ended up undergoing the Middle Passing. During the next millennium, this number grew continuously, reaching its peak sometime around 1750, when this annual number stabilized on 60,000-70,500. Estimates on the total number of Africans who have been forced to undergo the Middle Passage generally range coming from 9 to 15 thousand. Out of this amount, some 3 to 5 various million perished before they even reached the Americas.

From the end of January, 1700, the Henrietta Marie took some 200 enslaved Africans aboard the Midst Passage to the " new world ". The men, women and children were shackled and confined to the stifling cargo holds below deck. After locking down her cargo, the Henrietta Marie would have got brought food and h2o aboard for the extended voyage to the Western side Indies known as the center Passage.

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Slaves seized or purchased in the actual African interior were often held in confinement regarding months before they eventually arrived at the coast. Some of these persons had been wounded within battles, and others were being exposed to smallpox, black vomit, and other deadly illnesses.
The European sailors frequently caught these ailments. John Taylor, the captain from the Henrietta Marie's second trip, was not spared the actual threat of disease along with was ill or passing away before the ship quit Africa.

The mortality pace during the Middle Penetration was high for slaves and crew similar, averaging between 13 as well as 33 percent. The chance of contagion, however was best for the Africans.

Frequent hazards of the expedition, stemming from no various other source than poor eating habits and close confinement, involved scurvy and gangrene. Lack of fluids, caused by lack associated with drinking water and higher loss of bodily liquids from fevers or dysentery, would have been a primary killer aboard your slaving vessels.

Symptoms incorporated melancholy and a loss of appetite but were certainly not understood by early ship's physicians, and generally went untreated until past too far. In Addition, contaminated water supplies produced a variety of gastrointestinal disorders which elevated fatalities.

Conditions Aboard the actual Ship

Africans were limited below deck in packages holds where they had been chained together on a couple of tiers of shelves together with little or no place for adults to fill in. Many cargo holds received less than 18" relating to the shelves. Male slaves were being generally held captive while using the right foot of just one shackled to the still left foot of another. Girls were not normally chained and children were generally allowed to run totally free on the ship. With some ships, the chief might allow some with the men to be released from their chains as long as they did not appear to help pose a threat for the crew keeping watch about them.

In addition to this physical discomforts of the center Passage, the enslaved Africans were under good emotional distress from currently being torn from their fatherland and families.

Rebellion sailing!

Slave ships carried further crew members for the purpose of containing slaves during the Middle Passage. The crew associates were armed whenever slaves were on patio, and ready to chasten resistance by any means necessary. Nevertheless, mutinies taken place regularly, usually resulting in the severe punishment of the actual African slaves.

Remarkably, you will find notable examples of prosperous mutinies by Africans. Probably the most famous of these was held in the Caribbean, while Joseph Cinque, an African-american of high rank directed his countrymen to upset the crew of the actual Amistad. Cinque insisted that the crew take them to Africa, but the pirates and priests managed to steer upper as well as eastern, finally landing on the particular shores of Long Island. There the Africans attained abolitionists who helped these people fight for freedom in a very landmark case that went all the way to the supreme court.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Admiral John Hawkins

Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled since John Hawkyns) (Plymouth 1532 – 12 November 1595) was an British shipbuilder, naval administrator in addition to commander, merchant, navigator, in addition to slave trader. As treasurer (1577) and controller (1589) of the Royal Navy, he regained older ships and helped design the faster boats that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588. He or she later devised the naval blockade to intercept Spanish treasure ships. Among the foremost seamen of 16th-century Britain, he was the chief builder of the Elizabethan fast. In the battle where the Spanish Armada was beaten in 1588, Hawkins offered as a vice full admiral and was knighted with regard to his role.

William, John's father, was any confidant of Henry VIII of England and one of several principal sea captains of Britain. Sir Francis Drake, John's second nephew, helped him in the 2nd voyage.

The primary Englishman recorded to have slaves from Africa has been John Lok, a Greater london trader who, in 1555, brought five slaves from Guinea. A second London trader taking slaves at that time period was William Towerson whoever fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1556 voyage to The african continent and from Plymouth in his 1557 voyage. Regardless of the exploits of Lok in addition to Towerson, John Hawkins associated with Plymouth is often regarded as being the pioneer of the British slave trade, because he was the first to operate the Triangular trade, generating a profit at every cease.

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John Hawkins was the son of Bill Hawkins and Joan Trelawney. William Trelawney ended up being the son of Ruben Trelawney and Florence Courtenay, daughter of Hugh Courtenay. Hugh Courtenay was the son of Hughie Courtenay, Sr. and Matilda "Maud' Beaumont. Maud's mother seemed to be Eleanor Plantagenet, herself the truly great grand daughter of Master Henry III making David Hawkins the 7th fantastic-grandson of King Carol III. John was additionally the second cousin of Sir Francis Drake.

Initial voyage (1555–1563)

John Hawkins formed a distribute of wealthy merchants to purchase the slave trade. Inside 1555, he set travel with three ships for the Caribbean via Sierra Leone. They hijacked the Portuguese slave ship and also traded the 301 slaves in the Caribbean. Despite having two boats seized by the How to speak spanish authorities, he sold your slaves in Santo Domingo and thus made a profit for his Birmingham investors. His voyage caused the Spanish to suspend all English ships through trading in their Western Indies colonies.In 1563, John Hawkins introduced the first slaves from Africa to both hawaii Isles and Lower Americas.

Second voyage (1564–1565)

The minute voyage was even more fortunate. In 1564, Queen Electronic I partnered with him by renting him the massive old 700-ton deliver Jesus of Lubeck , and that he set forth on his second longer and far more extensive voyage along with three small ships. Hawkins sailed to Borburata, privateering along the way. By the time they reached Borburata, he got captured around 400 Africans. After Borburata, Hawkins sailed to Rio de la Hacha. The Spanish officers tried to prevent Hawkins from selling this slaves by imposing fees. Captain Hawkins refused the required taxes and threatened to burn the towns. After promoting his slaves, Captain Hawkins sailed to a new French colony in Florida for a respite. Headwaiter Hawkins returned to The united kingdom in September 1566, his expedition a total achievements as his financiers created a 60% profit.

Third journey (1567–1569)

His next voyage began in 1567. Hawkins obtained additional slaves, and also augmented his cargo by recording the Portuguese slave send Madre de Deus (Mother of God) and human cargo. He got about 400 slaves across the Atlantic on the 3rd trip. At San Juan de Ulúa new (in modern Vera Cruz) he was chanced upon by a solid Spanish force that was bringing, by a imperial edict issued by king Philip II of The country dated June 16, 1567, an investigative percentage consisting of Licenciado Gaspar de Jarava, Licenciado Alonso Muñoz and Doctor Luis Carrillo to find available about the insistent whispers on Spanish Viceroy associated with Mexico Gaston de Peralta, 3rd Marquis connected with Falces contriving, circa 1565, between others, with half brothers Martin Cortes I "El Mestizo", (1523 - 1568), Martin Cortés y Z .úñiga, a.k.a. Martin Cortés II, a.k.a. Market placeín Cortés, minute Marquis of the Area of Oaxaca, (1533 - 1589), legitimate son associated with Juana Ramirez de Arellano y Zúñiga and Luis Cortés y Hermosillo, another half close friend of the 2 Martín´s, but by another mother, on getting some sort of independence move of South america from the Spanish Top .

The first two have been from the Council with the Indies; Doctor Carrillo was an official in the judge. The General Commander from the Fleet was the freshly appointed governor of Cuba Pedro Menendez signifiant Avilés founder on the City of San Agustin, Florida, assisted through capable seafarer Sancho Pardo Donlebún, by Castropol, later a potent hammer against both, Bob Hawkins and Francis Drake.

From the ensuing Battle of San Juan de Ulúa only two of the English cruises escaped destruction, and Hawkins' voyage home would be a miserable one. That connected with Hawkins' gunner, Job Hartop was equally thus and took many decades.

Although his first a few voyages were semi-piratical enterprises, Queen Elizabeth I was in demand for money and saw cutthroat buccaneers as fighting her challenges at their own expense and risk.

Hawkins would likely write about the specifics of his third voyage within the Alliance to Raid intended for Slaves. Specifically he remarks on how trading as well as raiding were closely similar in the English slave trade and how European good results in the slave deal directly depended on Photography equipment allies who were happy to cooperate. He also comments on the level connected with violence he and his / her men used and urged in order to protected his captives. The name makes clear the foundation of his methodology.


As part in the government's web of counter-espionage, Hawkins fictive to be part of the Ridolfi plot to betray Queen Elizabeth in 1571. By gaining this confidence of Spain's ambassador to Britain, he discovered the details of the particular conspiracy and notified the us government so to arrest the actual plotters. He offered the services to the Spanish language, in order to have the release of prisoners and also to discover plans for the actual proposed Spanish invasion involving Britain.

His help throughout foiling the plot seemed to be rewarded, and in 1571 Hawkins entered Sevens to become a Member of Parliament. He became Financial officer of the Royal Dark blue on 1 January 1578 following the dying of his predecessor Benjamin Gonson (who was also his father-in-law, Hawkins having committed Katherine Gonson in 1567).

Hawkins' Navy economic reforms upset many exactly who had vested interests, plus 1582 his rival Sir William Wynter accused him of administrative malfeasance, instigating a Royal Percentage on Fraud against him or her. The Commission, under Burghley, Walsingham and Drake, concluded that there was no undue corruption, and that the particular Queen's Navy was throughout first-rate condition.

David Hawkins was determined of which his navy, as properly as having the ideal fleet of ships on this planet, would also have the best quality of seamen, and and so petitioned and won a pay increase for mariners, arguing that a more compact number of well-motivated and better-paid men would accomplish substantially more than an increased group of uninterested males.

Hawkins made important changes in ship construction and also rigging; he is a smaller amount well known for their inventiveness as a ship builder, but it was his or her idea to add for the caulker's work by this finishing touch of overlayer the underside of his ships with a skin color of nailed elm cedar sealed with a blend of pitch and hair smeared over the bottom part timbers, as a safety against the worms which would attack a ship within tropical seas. Hawkins additionally introduced detachable topmasts that may be hoisted and used with good weather and stowed in heavy seas. Masts were stepped further forward, and sails were being cut flatter. His cruises were "race-built", being longer and with fo'c'sle and aftcastle (or poop) reduced in size.

The Spanish language Armada

Hawkins' innovative methods made the new British isles ships fast and very manoeuvrable. In 1588 these were tested against the How to speak spanish Armada. Hawkins was the Rear Admiral, one of 3 main commanders of your British fleet against this Armada, alongside Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. Hawkins’ flagship was Victory. It is entirely possible that Hawkins organised the fire-ship attacks from Calais. For his role in the great seashore battle, Hawkins was knighted.

Following your defeat of the Armada, Hawkins urged this seizure of Philip II's colonial treasure, so as to stop Spain re-arming. In 1589, Hawkins sailed with past apprentice Francis Drake within a massive military operation (your Drake-Norris Expedition) and among its goals being to try to intercept the Spanish display fleet. The voyage failed, but the idea led many other British pirates to make similar attempts.

In 1590 Drake and also Hawkins founded a charitable organization for the relief of sick and elderly mariners. It was followed by a medical in 1592 and an additional in 1594, the Friend John Hawkins’ Hospital. The charity continues today.
[edit] Potatoes, tobacco and sharks

Potatoes were initial imported to Britain (probably Ireland) in both 1563 or 1565 (sources differ) by Hawkins.

Some scholars advise it was John Hawkins who introduced cigarette smoking into Britain. Some accounts say this was throughout 1569, others in 1564. The latter is more likely, because he mentions "Ltobaccoj" (meaning tobacco) in his or her journals of the minute voyage.

The Oxford Uk Dictionary notes that the phrase shark appears to are already introduced by Hawkins' pirates and priests, who brought one rear and exhibited it working in london in 1569. It has been suggested that your derivation is from xoc, the word for "fish" in some sort of Mayan language spoken with Yucatán.


Inside 1595 he accompanied his second cousin Sir Francis Drake, on some sort of treasure-hunting voyage to the West Indies, involving a pair of unsuccessful attacks on San Juan. During the voyage they both fell into sick. Hawkins died sailing off Puerto Rico. Drake succumbed to illness, most likely dysentery, with January 27, and had been buried at sea a place off the coast regarding Porto Belo. Hawkins has been succeeded by his son Sir Richard Hawkins.

Hawkins came to this public's attention again in June 2006, almost several and a half decades after his death, as soon as his descendant Andrew Hawkins publicly apologized pertaining to his ancestor's actions in the slave trade.

Monday, April 4, 2011

Star Wars Slave Ship

Slave Ship is the other novel in The Bounty Hunter Wars trilogy, written by K.W. Jeter in addition to published in October 1997 by Bantam Spectra.

Publisher's summary

He's each feared and admired, well known and despised. Boba Fett is the galaxy's most successful bounty hunter. Now he finds themself hunted in the most ancient game of all: selection.

The once powerful Bounteousness Hunter's Guild has also been shattered into warring groups. Now the posting associated with an enormous bounty on the renegade Imperial stormtrooper is going to start a frenzy connected with murderous greed. Hoping to fuel rumors of the death, Boba Fett abandons his ship, Servant I, and sets to claim the prize. Still his every move prospects him closer to the trap set by the cunning Prince Xizor. Fett will die previous to becoming Xizor's pawn from the Emperor's war against this Rebels. And he may have to. For in order to achieve his freedom he ought to outwit a sentient tool that feeds on People spirits. Then he ought to escape a galaxy regarding deadly enemies who should make the rumors of his / her death a reality.

Plot Summary

In the provide, Kuat of Kuat struggles against treachery and competitors from the other ruling families of Kuat as they attempt to overthrow your ex and assume leadership of KDY. In the meantime, he contemplates the way ahead for KDY and the galaxy, wondering what Boba Fett, having escaped the actual Sarlaac and the attempts on his life, will do next.

Meanwhile, Boba Fett plants a bogus bomb on the Hound's Tooth, forcing Bossk to eject in the escape pod and fibril himself on Tatooine. This permits Fett to maintain the particular rumors of his loss of life by abandoning Slave My partner and i (for the time being) and utilizing Bossk's ship after crippling its ID profile. While they travel toward a mystical destination, Dengar relates in order to Neelah the events following a split in the Bounty Hunters' Guild.

After the death of Cradossk at the hands of his son Bossk, the Guild divided into two opposing factions: the Accurate Guild (mainly comprised on the Guild elders and the supporters) and the Guild Reform Committee (mostly the younger bounty hunters, dominated by Bossk).

In an target audience before Emperor Palpatine, Emporer Xizor answers accusations via Darth Vader and convinces the Emperor to permit him to continue his plot to cull away the lagging bounty hunters, leaving the particular strong to be used by the Empire. He or she atomizes the remaining Gild factions by placing a large bounty on the scalp of Trhin Voss'on't, an old Imperial stormtrooper wanted for the slaughter of his entire ship's company. Such an important bounty would use the most basic trait of the amplitude hunters - greed - against these individuals, and thus complete your destruction of the Gild.

Temporarily teaming up using Bossk and Zuckuss, Boba Fett succeeds inside capturing Voss'on't, then turns on his partners (forcing them into an escape cod and jettisoning it) making sure that he may claim the bounty all for themself. His ship slightly damaged from a bomb Bossk tossed aboard with the last moment, Fett visits deliver his captive to help Ku'dar Mub'at, the spiderly assembler and top middle man in the galactic criminal underworld.

Meanwhile, in the particular midst of the world wide web, a treacherous alliance is formed. Prince Xizor is greeted by Balancesheet, Mub'at's accountant, who has been attaining intelligence and concealing it from the Assembler. Fascinated by the now-independent subnode's offer, Xizor plots his following move...